1 We hadden vroeger / eerder moeten beginnen.
2 Je zult de volgende keer voorzichtiger moeten zijn.
3 We hadden de prijs kunnen verhogen.
4 Je had het oliepeil moeten controleren.
5 Ze hebben hun huis moeten verkopen.
6 Je had dit niet hoeven doen.
7 Deze breekbare instrumenten hadden in schuimplastic verpakt moeten worden.
8 Je moet niet zoveel eten.
1 has to / needs to / must
2 had to / needed to
3 should / ought to
4 should / ought to
5 have to / need to
6 have to / need to / must
8 should / need
9 have to / need to
10 should / ought to
12 have to / had to / need to / needed / ought
1 Did she have to go to London?
2 Do they have to leave at ten?
3 Does she have to work tonight?
4 Do we need to reserve seats on this train / Need we reserve …
5 Must we go now?
1 You need not pay / do not need to pay for this brochure.
2 You do not have to fill in this form.
3 We won’t have to leave early.
4 You should not have helped her.
5 He did not have to work.
1 I had to work yesterday. / I needed to work … / Yesterday I …
2 Do I have to / Do I need to / Must I / Should I book / reserve tickets?
3 I have had to wait / I had to wait / needed to wait / have needed to wait (for) an / one hour.
4 You need not wait. / You do not have to wait. / You do not need to wait.
5 You should drink less. / You ought to drink less.
6 Do I have to / Do I need to / Must I / Should I confirm this booking / reservation?
7 You need not have hurried.
8 You mustn’t drink so much. / You should not drink … / You ought not to drink …
1 We really must economise / have to economise / need to economise on our overheads / overhead costs / cost. (also: economize)
2 Where do I have to sign? / Where should I sign?
3 Unfortunately I will / shall have to cancel / will need to / shall need to cancel my trip.
4 You do not have to go / You do not need to go / You need not go to this meeting.
5 They will have to / will need to adapt / adjust their marketing strategy.
6 They have had to close (down) / They had to close (down) / needed to close (down) / have needed to close down their branch in Manchester.
7 You should have made / ought to have made a backup of this file.
8 I did not have to / I did not need to pay anything.
9 You should always be polite to customers. / You ought always to be polite …
10 A restaurant should always be clean. / … ought always to be …
11 You need not have phoned / called me.
12 If he lives in such a big / large house, he must be very rich / very wealthy.
13 You should have sent / ought to have sent this form to Revenue and Customs (tot april the Inland Revenue).
14 He said (that) he had had to wait / had needed to wait in a traffic jam / tailback for an / one hour.
15You should not always complain. / You mustn’t always complain.
16 You should smoke less. / You ought to smoke less.
17 Yesterday I had to / needed to work overtime. / I … yesterday.
18 If you have not had breakfast (yet), you must be very hungry.
19 Because / As / Since he had debts / was in debt, he had had to sell / had needed to sell his car.
20 We should invest / ought to invest more in a cleaner environment.
1 must have met: must is used to express a logical conclusion.
2 mustn’t / should not / ought not to: Must not / mustn’t is used to indicate that it is wrong to do something or to tell people not to do something. In this case also should and ought to can be used.
3 had to / needed to work: To express necessity or obligation in the past we use had to / needed to.
5 had to: The past tense must be used when there is an indication of past time in the sentence (last night).
8 should have waited / ought to have waited: If we want to express a criticism for not having done the right thing, we use should have + past participle. In this case also ‘ought not to have’ can be used.
9 must be very hungry: must is used to express a logical conclusion.
1 have not been able
2 need to repay
4 will never have to repay
6 has to repay
7 should not worry